Italian language and culture

THREE WORKS BY ANDREA PALLADIO
Andrea Palladio is among the foremost architects of his time. His works helped to change the face of the Renaissance architecture despite working during a time when the Council of tent aimed at reforming the religious architectures as per the Protestant Reform criticism as well as criticism from with the church itself. Thus, Palladio’s architectural designs were limited to a large extent. One of his work was the Basilica di San Pietro di Castello in Venice which was publicly commission buildings. Basilica di San Pietro di Castello is a building that dates from the 16th century. It was the cathedral church of the city. Andrea Palladio was nominated to provide ideas for additions and alterations of the prominent early architects of Venice. His work was to rebuild the interior and faced of St Pietro. The church has a large dome showing the ecclesiastical importance of the church. The drum supports the dome with rectangular windows for letting in light. The interior has a large nave at the central with Latin aisle. There is a transept crossing the church separating the presbytery from the navel.

However, few years later he was commissioned to construct a private chapel for the Barbaro brothers who became his central opportunity of having a perfect plan of the church. Tempietto Barbaro is, therefore, his most crucial work that is a vehicle for discussing his other entire central plan and understanding the theories of architectural planning during the Renaissance. The Barbaro brothers were the Venetian aristocrats prominent for their goal of establishing a humanistic society and educated in humanistic educations. The final architectural work was a product of Palladio’s and Marcantonio Barbaro ideas. The church’s location at the Barbaro estate bounded in the village of the Maser. Its primary purpose was to become a private chapel for the function of the village parish and the Barbaro (Figure 1). The churches plan design is from the Greek cross but in a smaller version of the chapel. It has a semi-circular dome and four arms (Figure 2).

The construction’s facade transports the viewer immediately to the Pantheon in Rome, with its portion and pediment fronting the great dome. There is minimal extravagant ornamentation inside the church. It has no paintings but white walls; the decorations comprise of the statuary. The function of the church to become the village parish was secondary to its purpose of being the Marc’antonio and his family mortuary chapel. Therefore, the church is constructed to bring in muted lighting, and its decorations are not over the top There are repeated sets of Corinthian columns within the triumphal arch motif replicated throughout the room (Weissmuller, 2007).

Il Redentore is another work by Palladio has the Aedicules that feature on the walls encrypted with the Barbaros’ patron saints pictures. The Il Redentore was Palladio’s idyllic church that he has always had in his mind. Palladio’s ideas and thought in designing the Il Redentore had their way in planning for the Tempietto Barbaro. Each feature in Il Redentore is well elevated showing the steps leading to the front entrance. The Il Redentore is a square shape outwardly but the inside there is a faint Greek cross plan that is more pronounced that the Tempietto. The front features of Il Redentore comprise of four engaged columns that are Tempiettos temple front. In general, the initial ideas that Palladio conceived for the Il Redentore were revived and rejuvenated in the construction of Tempietto Barbaro (Weismuller, 2007).

Other architects and their importance
Girolamo Savonarola was a friar Dominican, who preached in Florence in the Renaissance period. His preaching was to seek both political and spiritual reform. Savonarola preached against the materialistic lifestyle of Florence, which was the great center of literature, architecture, and Renaissance art. Sandro Botticelli during his time produced many volumes of paintings and drawings such as the ‘Divine Comedy’ manuscript by Dante. With Botticelli’s work were mainly church related.

For instance, the Adoration of the Magi’ (c.1481) provides heavy details with well elaborated architectural representations and expressive set of figures within religious contexts. He had a good reputation in religious art and was invited to work in decorating the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. By the turn of the century, he had readopted the Gothic principle and abandoned modern architecture in place of rural elements for framing subjects.

The Scrovegni Chapel Giotto di Bandon’s masterwork that he completed in 1305 in Padua, Italy for the Enrich Scrovegni family. The forgoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of the chapel relate to an emotional and complex narrative of the lives of Jesus and Mary. The narrative outlook forms the genius aspect of this chapel. Bandon’s settings and themes are exclusively religious as seen in the ionic scenes that depict Jesus, Mary, and Joachim.

Scrovegni Chapel

Leon Battista Alberti in 1435 gave the first theory about the modern day linear perspective ion his book the painting. This new system has a major impact on measurements in paintings to many artists after 1435. The artist created a floor on the ground of the painting and drew another receding grid to guide the reflective scale on other elements in the picture. It was the first step that painting was not just for the purpose of God’s glorifications as it was the case of the Medieval Europe. Instead, painting during the Renaissance was for the people looking at the painting.

Starting a Service-based Business? Read These 4 Keys to Success

A service-based business offers services to people without selling tangible products. Think about salons, laundry services, wedding photographers, house cleaners, car repair companies and coaching service providers – they all are service-based businesses that help people get their stuff done. Starting these types of businesses usually costs less but there are a few challenges unique to this type of venture. If you’re reading this article, we can assume you are either planning to sell a unique service to people or you have already started your small business. So, whatever your idea is or business is about, here are the four keys to become a successful service provider in your industry.

Find Your Niche: Enter an industry that you’re familiar with and offer services that you would use yourself. You must be an expert of that field. If you’re passionate about something, selling might be easier for you. Are you offering what people want? What aspect of your business will make it appealing to customers? To get the answers to these questions, you need to focus on buyer person as, how you’re going to solve their problems, research your competitors in the market and identify interesting ways to attract customers.

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Set The Pricing Right: You are here to sell your time and expertise, so you need to choose the right pricing strategy. Price your services too high, and you can never win over your competitors. Price them too low, and you will never be able to turn your business into a successful company. Choose a striking balance between competitive rates and charging your customers for your time and service. The simplest way businesses can charge is by the hour. Your second option is to offer package services and charge a flat fee for a combination of services. You can also go with the combination pricing option and offer your services at an hourly rate and as part of a package.

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Learn to Manage Your Finances: A service business has lower overhead costs but that doesn’t mean you won’t have to have to take care of your finances. Keep track of all of your small business expenses, such as costs of buying new equipment or tools, payment to your vendors and employees and monthly rent if you are running your business from a shop. Create a cash flow budget, make financial projections, keep your payables up-to-date and track the credit you are extending to your customers.

Get Professional Help: Everyone needs help, especially small business owners and aspiring entrepreneurs. Sometimes, it pays off to consult a small business mentor. Getting the right advice can be the difference between your success and failure. Seek professional advice from a business mentor to determine how to manage your business, know where it is heading and create an action plan for growth. Arrange one to one session with a professional small business mentoring service provider so as to get clarity about your business and create a strategic plan to take it to the next level.

Starting a service-based small business is cheap but it needs right skills, knowledge and professional guidance. When you find your niche, choose the right pricing, track your finances and get advice from a small business mentor, then you’ll be able to focus on the most important thing about your business: selling your service and making happy clients. So don’t wait, contact a small business mentoring service provider today to find new ways of selling your services and make your dream a profitable project.

Holism versus reductionism in healthcare and Athletics Gear Manufacturing Industry

This paper discusses holism and reductionism in health care and athletics gear industries.

Healthcare industry
The primary concept of holism is that its proponents have a common belief that things are better understood in their wholeness rather than when broken into component parts (Freeman, 2005). The body functions as a complete unit. It’s thus not possible to trigger a cell without triggering the whole body. This same concept, when applied to the healthcare industry, could mean that all aspects of healthcare provision are considered more realistic and more gratifying when what is under consideration is treated in its original state rather than in parts. For instance, if a person diagnosed with a certain illness is admitted to a healthcare facility, he is considered wholly in need of medication. In any case, the pain or agony in a particular part of the body affects the whole body (Freeman, 2005). When medication is applied, its carried in the blood to heal the place in pain though this affects the whole body. It’s thus not possible to isolate any part of the human body no matter whether it’s the part/organ most affected by the ailment. When a person suffers mental delusion, the whole body is affected. If he suffers stomach upsets, the whole body is considered sick or unhealthy.

There is one thing that comes out from the above consideration; that healthcare service provision is a large enterprise requiring many and different health care providers including pharmacists, psychologists, dentists, opticians, etc. who are closely interdependent. Their system of work is so much intertwined that if one breaks out of the system, it may crash. If sufficient healthcare is to be accorded to patients, then these departments have to work as a whole and interdependently rather than separately (Ahn et al., 2006)

Reductionism is, however, the complete diversion from holism. For reductionists, the parts are crucial if the whole is to be understood. In the healthcare context, reductionists believe that the patient has to be studied more aggressively though analyzing the organs affected rather than the whole body (Ahn et al., 2006) For them, the symptoms alone cannot be used by a physician to know what really the patient suffers. When a patient is admitted, each organ reported to bring about his/her suffering is looked into independently. Smaller concepts of studying or researching what may be the cause of the problems in the various parts of the body are applied. More so, the medication for the differently affected parts of the body are given and prescribed separately (Ahn et al., 2006).

Athletics gear manufacturing industry
This industry deals with the manufacturing of athletics protective aids for athletes and related apparel. Such industries produce athletics goods such as sailboards, skates, exercise machines and other playground equipment. They also manufacture protective goods for athletes such h as helmets, athletics pads, snowshoes, shin guards among other protective gear.

Holism and reductionism apply in this industry in various dimensions. In the dimension of production, holism occurs in the notion that athletics gear industry is incomplete if it produces or manufactures a particular set of apparel. For instance, this industry must produce all focal goods required by athletes for it to be termed so. Reductionism would not coincide with that. For it, the industry may warrant the term ‘athletics gear manufacturing industry’ even if it produces one nature or line of the above goods (Freeman, 2005). The second area of consideration that may bring in the concept of holism and reductionism with respect to the industry is production process of the apparel. If the principles holism is considered, an all-inclusive design perspective is used. As such, the criteria for producing athletics apparel might be the same. The price determination criteria (Wu, 2012) for the same system of items (protective athletics items for instance) might be the same. More so, the raw materials might also be the same for a system of items so that similar items can match in many, if not all aspects. Holism as far as this industry is considered is a considerable notion that all things, methodology of their production and price processing are connected in such a mutual manner that none is stand-alone (Benci et al., 2003).

If reductionism concept is used, however, the contrary of the above among other things is possible. In reductionism, the manner of treating even a system of related goods in terms of pricing criteria, production process, branding and other levels of good handling might not be equal. Since reductionist believes every part of the system is a stand-alone facet, every unit of the production process in the manufacturing process of the athletics apparel will be treated independently. As such, every item that will be produced might possess different attributes from the other even though the same department produces the items. In that case, every item deserves its own handling since quality might not be the same. In short, reductionism when applied in any manufacturing industry or production process means that every bit of the process is independent of the preceding or succeeding stages.