Italian language and culture

THREE WORKS BY ANDREA PALLADIO
Andrea Palladio is among the foremost architects of his time. His works helped to change the face of the Renaissance architecture despite working during a time when the Council of tent aimed at reforming the religious architectures as per the Protestant Reform criticism as well as criticism from with the church itself. Thus, Palladio’s architectural designs were limited to a large extent. One of his work was the Basilica di San Pietro di Castello in Venice which was publicly commission buildings. Basilica di San Pietro di Castello is a building that dates from the 16th century. It was the cathedral church of the city. Andrea Palladio was nominated to provide ideas for additions and alterations of the prominent early architects of Venice. His work was to rebuild the interior and faced of St Pietro. The church has a large dome showing the ecclesiastical importance of the church. The drum supports the dome with rectangular windows for letting in light. The interior has a large nave at the central with Latin aisle. There is a transept crossing the church separating the presbytery from the navel.

However, few years later he was commissioned to construct a private chapel for the Barbaro brothers who became his central opportunity of having a perfect plan of the church. Tempietto Barbaro is, therefore, his most crucial work that is a vehicle for discussing his other entire central plan and understanding the theories of architectural planning during the Renaissance. The Barbaro brothers were the Venetian aristocrats prominent for their goal of establishing a humanistic society and educated in humanistic educations. The final architectural work was a product of Palladio’s and Marcantonio Barbaro ideas. The church’s location at the Barbaro estate bounded in the village of the Maser. Its primary purpose was to become a private chapel for the function of the village parish and the Barbaro (Figure 1). The churches plan design is from the Greek cross but in a smaller version of the chapel. It has a semi-circular dome and four arms (Figure 2).

The construction’s facade transports the viewer immediately to the Pantheon in Rome, with its portion and pediment fronting the great dome. There is minimal extravagant ornamentation inside the church. It has no paintings but white walls; the decorations comprise of the statuary. The function of the church to become the village parish was secondary to its purpose of being the Marc’antonio and his family mortuary chapel. Therefore, the church is constructed to bring in muted lighting, and its decorations are not over the top There are repeated sets of Corinthian columns within the triumphal arch motif replicated throughout the room (Weissmuller, 2007).

Il Redentore is another work by Palladio has the Aedicules that feature on the walls encrypted with the Barbaros’ patron saints pictures. The Il Redentore was Palladio’s idyllic church that he has always had in his mind. Palladio’s ideas and thought in designing the Il Redentore had their way in planning for the Tempietto Barbaro. Each feature in Il Redentore is well elevated showing the steps leading to the front entrance. The Il Redentore is a square shape outwardly but the inside there is a faint Greek cross plan that is more pronounced that the Tempietto. The front features of Il Redentore comprise of four engaged columns that are Tempiettos temple front. In general, the initial ideas that Palladio conceived for the Il Redentore were revived and rejuvenated in the construction of Tempietto Barbaro (Weismuller, 2007).

Other architects and their importance
Girolamo Savonarola was a friar Dominican, who preached in Florence in the Renaissance period. His preaching was to seek both political and spiritual reform. Savonarola preached against the materialistic lifestyle of Florence, which was the great center of literature, architecture, and Renaissance art. Sandro Botticelli during his time produced many volumes of paintings and drawings such as the ‘Divine Comedy’ manuscript by Dante. With Botticelli’s work were mainly church related.

For instance, the Adoration of the Magi’ (c.1481) provides heavy details with well elaborated architectural representations and expressive set of figures within religious contexts. He had a good reputation in religious art and was invited to work in decorating the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. By the turn of the century, he had readopted the Gothic principle and abandoned modern architecture in place of rural elements for framing subjects.

The Scrovegni Chapel Giotto di Bandon’s masterwork that he completed in 1305 in Padua, Italy for the Enrich Scrovegni family. The forgoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of the chapel relate to an emotional and complex narrative of the lives of Jesus and Mary. The narrative outlook forms the genius aspect of this chapel. Bandon’s settings and themes are exclusively religious as seen in the ionic scenes that depict Jesus, Mary, and Joachim.

Scrovegni Chapel

Leon Battista Alberti in 1435 gave the first theory about the modern day linear perspective ion his book the painting. This new system has a major impact on measurements in paintings to many artists after 1435. The artist created a floor on the ground of the painting and drew another receding grid to guide the reflective scale on other elements in the picture. It was the first step that painting was not just for the purpose of God’s glorifications as it was the case of the Medieval Europe. Instead, painting during the Renaissance was for the people looking at the painting.

Executive Summary Report to Health Minister Saudi Arabia

Introduction
The vending machines are popping up everywhere in Saudi Arabia especially about the fast foods joints. The fact that they present us with a fast opportunity to get something that was unplanned to eat makes them acceptable in the society. The fast rate at which the community is growing and the fact that people have even lesser time to prepare for meals especially due to the planning attribute makes the emergence of these fast food vending machines extremely famous. The growing number of fast foods vending machines in Saudi Arabian hospitals is raising major concerns about the daily visitors to these facilities. These vending machines offer the patients and the other visitors to the facilities an easy way to obtain a quick snack for a few coins instead of having to carry food from home as well as having to go too far areas in search of a meal. However, the disadvantages that these machines present are a major concern that has led to the idea of replacing these machines with the healthy juice vending machines. The growth trend of health complications especially the case of child obesity has become a global problem and the Saudi Arabian nation is trying to look for the cases as well as solutions to the health trends.

Building the Executive Report Body
Vending machines offer one of the most convenient options that people have in accessing foods as well as drinks without having to travel for long distances looking for a shop or having to make plans of hat they are going to eat. Traditionally, these bending machines have been strategically located in areas that receive traffic entailing people who want quick solutions to their hunger and thirst needs. Some of these locations encompass the hospitals targeting the waiting customers, fast food joints where people go to get quick fixes as well as schools targeting the large population of students with pocket changes among others (Chahoud and Carter, 2006). The convenience that these unhealthy fast food joints come with grave adverse heath repercussions for the consumers of the products found in these machines.

Statistics indicate that the attainment of an optimally healthy heart demands that one should not consume more than 1500 milligrams of sodium on a daily basis. The human body demands sodium in the diet to guarantee that attainment of normal body fluid balance, with the consuming too much sodium increasing the likelihood of high blood pressure and the consequent risk of stroke. The consumption of junk foods from the unhealthy fast food vending machines as potato chips, pepperoni pizza is high in sodium and increases an individual’s risk of stroke. The journal of cerebral circulation reveals that there is an 18% increase in the risk of stroke for every 500 milligrams of sodium that an individual consumes above the recommendation (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630).

There is the trend on the cropping up of vending machines all over Saudi Arabia is one of the factors that has resulted in the development of this executive summary (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). Most of these vending machines contain most products that are unhealthy such as the sugary products and the numerous other products that are promoting the unhealthy trend in the country. The fatty and sugary products that most of the vending machines provide makes it imperative that measures to address the trend are put in place. The fact that the unhealthy vending machines have encroached most of the hospitals in Saudi Arabia raises the concern about the healthy eating subject considering that the healthy facilities are supposed to enhance the health of their clients. The additional demerit relating to the growth of the unhealthy vending machines in Saudi Arabia is the fact that they mostly contain junk foods that are responsible for numerous lifestyle diseases. Some of these health challenges that the unhealthy fast food vending machines expose the population to include increasing the risks of stroke, tooth decay, gastrointestinal problems and weight gain among others. The introduction and the consequent replacement of the unhealthy vending machines that have become a culture in Saudi in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints are going to have an extremely beneficial attribute to the entire Saudi Arabian population.

The junk food that is available via the unhealthy fast food vending machines results in weight gain and other cases obesity. The common statics indicates that it takes an extra 3,500 calories in an individual’s diet every day to gain 1 pound of weight gain. Tooth decay as the additional result of the unhealthy fast food vending machines follows that a diet that is rich in sugary products increases and individual’s likelihood of developing cavities. The occurrence of tooth decay follows the breakdown of the enamel, which is the protective coating on teeth (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). The eating of junk food that is high in the sugar content as candy as well as baked goods coats the mouth, gums, tongue and teeth with sugar, the component that attacks the enamel resulting in tooth decay and cavities.

Consumption of too much junk foods products can result in gastrointestinal challenges in that the processed foods contain very little if any dietary fiber. It is imperative that one including fiber in the diet to keep those bowels moving and if one did not eat the adequate amount of fiber, there is a high likelihood of developing constipation.

Most institutions are currently addressing the state of the vending machines in their vicinities containing the unhealthy products that are responsible for the health challenges. Starting the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints in Saudi Arabia with fresh juice vending machines presents an opportunity for the county to improve the wellbeing of its citizenry. The successful realization of a healthy population by the Saudi Arabia population relies on the ability of the hospitals administration to ban the sale of sugary and fatty foods in the vending machines available in the facilities (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630). The campaign needs to extend to the other regions that have the selling of fast foods as they are the main proponents of the unhealthy eating that is accessed through these vending machines.

Strength
The continued growth of the trend for healthy foods has seen an increase in the consumption of vegetables and fruits during the meals as well as breaks, particularly revolving around the consumption of fruit juices and the freshly squeezed juice. Through the promotion of the replacement of the unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice vending machines, the hospitals in Saudi Arabia will be able to improve the nutritional offerings in their cafeterias, vending machines as well as the meals that the patients consume (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 26-50). The growth in the awareness of the number of population that is aware of the healthy negative benefits associated with the unhealthy fast food vending machines implies that the idea of the fresh juice is going to be accepted. Consequently, there has been an escalation in the costs of accessing healthcare in Saudi Arabia as a result of the poor eating habits implies that the stakeholders in the healthcare sector are going to support the policy on the replacement of the unhealthy foods. Starting the change in hospitals offers the best opportunity to undertake mass education as the information they get comes from the sources that they trust with their health (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 2016). Additionally the need to cut on the hospital budgetary allocation by the government makes the policies relating to the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice ones a success due to the involvement of the national leaders.

Thus, the overall attribute that supports the adoption of the fresh juice vending machines in hospitals, as well as the other fast foods joints, include the fact that the Saudi Arabia population is going to benefit from the realization of a healthy life. The reduction in the number of strokes, tooth decays, and obesity among the residents of Saudi Arabia will make the idea acceptable to the residents. The desire by the government to reduce their allocation to the healthy sector additionally implies that the strategy will receive the support of the government.

Weakness Area
The main weakness in the implementations of the fresh juice vending in Saudi Arabian hospitals as well as the other parts that sell fast foods is the fact that there is the lack of mass information. The lack of information to the masses on the health challenges that these unhealthy fast food vending machines present to them make it hard for them to make the informed decisions relating to their health benefits. Additionally the fact that the fresh juice vending machines are the a new topic in Saudi Arabia implies that the idea will take the time to gain track while the population will still be consuming the unhealthy products available in the fast food vending machines. The few fresh juice machines that are available in the regions additionally make it impossible for all the people with the desire to consume the healthy products gaining access to the fresh juice. The fact that the fresh juice vending machine is currently offering the fresh juice products is an additional attribute that limits its application as the users need other products other than the juice.

Opportunity Available Which Outside Abroad
The growing number of schools that are calling for healthy eating of their students offers an opportunity for the product. By liaising with the school administrations, we will be able to install the machines in the schools, an attribute that offers significant revenues. The numerous fast foods joints that are available in the region additionally present an opportunity that we will be exploiting. We will be stocking these fast food joint vending machines without fresh juice products, thus cutting the costs we would have incurred in installing the machines ourselves (Chahoud and Carter, 2014). The costs we save through this attribute will be used in stocking more vending machines in the fast joints, especially in Jeddah. The growing bad reputation of the fast foods joints offering spoilt products is an additional opportunity we will be taking advantage of by making our vending machines self-services joints that the customers serve themselves. The exponential growth of the fast food lovers in Saudi Arabia is an opportunity that offers a huge market for our fresh juice products.

Risks
The possible risk we run encountering is the court suits that the owners of the fast foods joints may make in barring us from using their machines, an attribute that will cost us market accessibility. Additionally, the stringent laws in Saudi Arabia regarding the establishment of new businesses are additionally a risk that could make us take longer as we wait for licensure. The penetration of the already existing fast food vendors into the fresh juice idea is an attribute that will significantly eat into our revenues as they already have the infrastructure.

Superstition Assignment

Superstitions are a type of magic that people believe that practicing certain rituals brings them good luck, prevent illness, evade evil, and other related outcomes. As such, superstitions can be in different types depending on the context. The remarks or actions made by others can be superstitious in some way.

I experienced an incident that seemed superstitious. I used to visit my grandmother during holidays to spend some time with her and assist her in the daily chores. However, in one particular incidence, she made some remarks that appeared superstitious. She said that she had a grudge with my other family members because they neglected her in her time of need. According to my understanding, the remarks seemed superstitious since I did not know how she could react in her grudge against my family members. She could even do harm to me as a form of revenge.

In one instance, a young man came straight to a lady and started hurling insults at her without a clear basis of the source of the hostility. The lady felt disturbed and concerned that she did not know the guy and yet went ahead to insult her. I find the incident superstitious since no one can tell the reason the guy behaved the way he did. It leaves a lot to think about because they were strangers to each other. The unclear intentions of the young man make it very superstitious.

Another incident involved two ladies who were not in good terms. One lady, Janette used to visit the other on weekends and carried a small bag which she used to forget intentionally behind only to be reminded later about it. The trend continued on several occasions until the other lady became suspicious of a small bag. The actions by Janette are superstitious since she might be sending a clear signal to the other lady of bad luck. The fact that she left the small bag intentionally shows that she there was something she intended to do the other lady.

I think that all the examples outlined clear explanations about superstitions based on personal remarks or actions. In the first incident, my grandmother ought not to say the remarks she said because they live a lot to consider. The remarks elicit fear and imaginations about the likely course of action that she intended to take. She could leave a curse, cause evil, or seek for revenge in very negative ways. Thus, I think that my grandmother would not be satisfied even after revenging due to inner thought struggles. In the second instance, the young man could not insult the lady since she was innocent by her being a stranger. It is likely that the guy had a mistaken identity that makes it very superstitious to judge his actions. I think that the remedy for the behavior would be requesting to know more about the events leading to the incident. The third instance involved a superstitious action. It is not clear to the observer what Janette meant by leaving her bag intentionally. People could imagine that Janette desired to do harm to the other lady and used the bag to entice her. It is likely that there was something bad inside the bag meant to cause harm to the lady.

The need to identify superstitious actions and remarks from others is important in evaluating the cases identified. It is easy to differentiate between superstitious actions and remarks to others due to the expected turn of events. The arguments given in class are a good foundation to help in evaluating the cases.