Executive Summary Report to Health Minister Saudi Arabia

Introduction
The vending machines are popping up everywhere in Saudi Arabia especially about the fast foods joints. The fact that they present us with a fast opportunity to get something that was unplanned to eat makes them acceptable in the society. The fast rate at which the community is growing and the fact that people have even lesser time to prepare for meals especially due to the planning attribute makes the emergence of these fast food vending machines extremely famous. The growing number of fast foods vending machines in Saudi Arabian hospitals is raising major concerns about the daily visitors to these facilities. These vending machines offer the patients and the other visitors to the facilities an easy way to obtain a quick snack for a few coins instead of having to carry food from home as well as having to go too far areas in search of a meal. However, the disadvantages that these machines present are a major concern that has led to the idea of replacing these machines with the healthy juice vending machines. The growth trend of health complications especially the case of child obesity has become a global problem and the Saudi Arabian nation is trying to look for the cases as well as solutions to the health trends.

Building the Executive Report Body
Vending machines offer one of the most convenient options that people have in accessing foods as well as drinks without having to travel for long distances looking for a shop or having to make plans of hat they are going to eat. Traditionally, these bending machines have been strategically located in areas that receive traffic entailing people who want quick solutions to their hunger and thirst needs. Some of these locations encompass the hospitals targeting the waiting customers, fast food joints where people go to get quick fixes as well as schools targeting the large population of students with pocket changes among others (Chahoud and Carter, 2006). The convenience that these unhealthy fast food joints come with grave adverse heath repercussions for the consumers of the products found in these machines.

Statistics indicate that the attainment of an optimally healthy heart demands that one should not consume more than 1500 milligrams of sodium on a daily basis. The human body demands sodium in the diet to guarantee that attainment of normal body fluid balance, with the consuming too much sodium increasing the likelihood of high blood pressure and the consequent risk of stroke. The consumption of junk foods from the unhealthy fast food vending machines as potato chips, pepperoni pizza is high in sodium and increases an individual’s risk of stroke. The journal of cerebral circulation reveals that there is an 18% increase in the risk of stroke for every 500 milligrams of sodium that an individual consumes above the recommendation (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630).

There is the trend on the cropping up of vending machines all over Saudi Arabia is one of the factors that has resulted in the development of this executive summary (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). Most of these vending machines contain most products that are unhealthy such as the sugary products and the numerous other products that are promoting the unhealthy trend in the country. The fatty and sugary products that most of the vending machines provide makes it imperative that measures to address the trend are put in place. The fact that the unhealthy vending machines have encroached most of the hospitals in Saudi Arabia raises the concern about the healthy eating subject considering that the healthy facilities are supposed to enhance the health of their clients. The additional demerit relating to the growth of the unhealthy vending machines in Saudi Arabia is the fact that they mostly contain junk foods that are responsible for numerous lifestyle diseases. Some of these health challenges that the unhealthy fast food vending machines expose the population to include increasing the risks of stroke, tooth decay, gastrointestinal problems and weight gain among others. The introduction and the consequent replacement of the unhealthy vending machines that have become a culture in Saudi in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints are going to have an extremely beneficial attribute to the entire Saudi Arabian population.

The junk food that is available via the unhealthy fast food vending machines results in weight gain and other cases obesity. The common statics indicates that it takes an extra 3,500 calories in an individual’s diet every day to gain 1 pound of weight gain. Tooth decay as the additional result of the unhealthy fast food vending machines follows that a diet that is rich in sugary products increases and individual’s likelihood of developing cavities. The occurrence of tooth decay follows the breakdown of the enamel, which is the protective coating on teeth (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). The eating of junk food that is high in the sugar content as candy as well as baked goods coats the mouth, gums, tongue and teeth with sugar, the component that attacks the enamel resulting in tooth decay and cavities.

Consumption of too much junk foods products can result in gastrointestinal challenges in that the processed foods contain very little if any dietary fiber. It is imperative that one including fiber in the diet to keep those bowels moving and if one did not eat the adequate amount of fiber, there is a high likelihood of developing constipation.

Most institutions are currently addressing the state of the vending machines in their vicinities containing the unhealthy products that are responsible for the health challenges. Starting the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints in Saudi Arabia with fresh juice vending machines presents an opportunity for the county to improve the wellbeing of its citizenry. The successful realization of a healthy population by the Saudi Arabia population relies on the ability of the hospitals administration to ban the sale of sugary and fatty foods in the vending machines available in the facilities (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630). The campaign needs to extend to the other regions that have the selling of fast foods as they are the main proponents of the unhealthy eating that is accessed through these vending machines.

Strength
The continued growth of the trend for healthy foods has seen an increase in the consumption of vegetables and fruits during the meals as well as breaks, particularly revolving around the consumption of fruit juices and the freshly squeezed juice. Through the promotion of the replacement of the unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice vending machines, the hospitals in Saudi Arabia will be able to improve the nutritional offerings in their cafeterias, vending machines as well as the meals that the patients consume (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 26-50). The growth in the awareness of the number of population that is aware of the healthy negative benefits associated with the unhealthy fast food vending machines implies that the idea of the fresh juice is going to be accepted. Consequently, there has been an escalation in the costs of accessing healthcare in Saudi Arabia as a result of the poor eating habits implies that the stakeholders in the healthcare sector are going to support the policy on the replacement of the unhealthy foods. Starting the change in hospitals offers the best opportunity to undertake mass education as the information they get comes from the sources that they trust with their health (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 2016). Additionally the need to cut on the hospital budgetary allocation by the government makes the policies relating to the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice ones a success due to the involvement of the national leaders.

Thus, the overall attribute that supports the adoption of the fresh juice vending machines in hospitals, as well as the other fast foods joints, include the fact that the Saudi Arabia population is going to benefit from the realization of a healthy life. The reduction in the number of strokes, tooth decays, and obesity among the residents of Saudi Arabia will make the idea acceptable to the residents. The desire by the government to reduce their allocation to the healthy sector additionally implies that the strategy will receive the support of the government.

Weakness Area
The main weakness in the implementations of the fresh juice vending in Saudi Arabian hospitals as well as the other parts that sell fast foods is the fact that there is the lack of mass information. The lack of information to the masses on the health challenges that these unhealthy fast food vending machines present to them make it hard for them to make the informed decisions relating to their health benefits. Additionally the fact that the fresh juice vending machines are the a new topic in Saudi Arabia implies that the idea will take the time to gain track while the population will still be consuming the unhealthy products available in the fast food vending machines. The few fresh juice machines that are available in the regions additionally make it impossible for all the people with the desire to consume the healthy products gaining access to the fresh juice. The fact that the fresh juice vending machine is currently offering the fresh juice products is an additional attribute that limits its application as the users need other products other than the juice.

Opportunity Available Which Outside Abroad
The growing number of schools that are calling for healthy eating of their students offers an opportunity for the product. By liaising with the school administrations, we will be able to install the machines in the schools, an attribute that offers significant revenues. The numerous fast foods joints that are available in the region additionally present an opportunity that we will be exploiting. We will be stocking these fast food joint vending machines without fresh juice products, thus cutting the costs we would have incurred in installing the machines ourselves (Chahoud and Carter, 2014). The costs we save through this attribute will be used in stocking more vending machines in the fast joints, especially in Jeddah. The growing bad reputation of the fast foods joints offering spoilt products is an additional opportunity we will be taking advantage of by making our vending machines self-services joints that the customers serve themselves. The exponential growth of the fast food lovers in Saudi Arabia is an opportunity that offers a huge market for our fresh juice products.

Risks
The possible risk we run encountering is the court suits that the owners of the fast foods joints may make in barring us from using their machines, an attribute that will cost us market accessibility. Additionally, the stringent laws in Saudi Arabia regarding the establishment of new businesses are additionally a risk that could make us take longer as we wait for licensure. The penetration of the already existing fast food vendors into the fresh juice idea is an attribute that will significantly eat into our revenues as they already have the infrastructure.

Holism versus reductionism in healthcare and Athletics Gear Manufacturing Industry

This paper discusses holism and reductionism in health care and athletics gear industries.

Healthcare industry
The primary concept of holism is that its proponents have a common belief that things are better understood in their wholeness rather than when broken into component parts (Freeman, 2005). The body functions as a complete unit. It’s thus not possible to trigger a cell without triggering the whole body. This same concept, when applied to the healthcare industry, could mean that all aspects of healthcare provision are considered more realistic and more gratifying when what is under consideration is treated in its original state rather than in parts. For instance, if a person diagnosed with a certain illness is admitted to a healthcare facility, he is considered wholly in need of medication. In any case, the pain or agony in a particular part of the body affects the whole body (Freeman, 2005). When medication is applied, its carried in the blood to heal the place in pain though this affects the whole body. It’s thus not possible to isolate any part of the human body no matter whether it’s the part/organ most affected by the ailment. When a person suffers mental delusion, the whole body is affected. If he suffers stomach upsets, the whole body is considered sick or unhealthy.

There is one thing that comes out from the above consideration; that healthcare service provision is a large enterprise requiring many and different health care providers including pharmacists, psychologists, dentists, opticians, etc. who are closely interdependent. Their system of work is so much intertwined that if one breaks out of the system, it may crash. If sufficient healthcare is to be accorded to patients, then these departments have to work as a whole and interdependently rather than separately (Ahn et al., 2006)

Reductionism is, however, the complete diversion from holism. For reductionists, the parts are crucial if the whole is to be understood. In the healthcare context, reductionists believe that the patient has to be studied more aggressively though analyzing the organs affected rather than the whole body (Ahn et al., 2006) For them, the symptoms alone cannot be used by a physician to know what really the patient suffers. When a patient is admitted, each organ reported to bring about his/her suffering is looked into independently. Smaller concepts of studying or researching what may be the cause of the problems in the various parts of the body are applied. More so, the medication for the differently affected parts of the body are given and prescribed separately (Ahn et al., 2006).

Athletics gear manufacturing industry
This industry deals with the manufacturing of athletics protective aids for athletes and related apparel. Such industries produce athletics goods such as sailboards, skates, exercise machines and other playground equipment. They also manufacture protective goods for athletes such h as helmets, athletics pads, snowshoes, shin guards among other protective gear.

Holism and reductionism apply in this industry in various dimensions. In the dimension of production, holism occurs in the notion that athletics gear industry is incomplete if it produces or manufactures a particular set of apparel. For instance, this industry must produce all focal goods required by athletes for it to be termed so. Reductionism would not coincide with that. For it, the industry may warrant the term ‘athletics gear manufacturing industry’ even if it produces one nature or line of the above goods (Freeman, 2005). The second area of consideration that may bring in the concept of holism and reductionism with respect to the industry is production process of the apparel. If the principles holism is considered, an all-inclusive design perspective is used. As such, the criteria for producing athletics apparel might be the same. The price determination criteria (Wu, 2012) for the same system of items (protective athletics items for instance) might be the same. More so, the raw materials might also be the same for a system of items so that similar items can match in many, if not all aspects. Holism as far as this industry is considered is a considerable notion that all things, methodology of their production and price processing are connected in such a mutual manner that none is stand-alone (Benci et al., 2003).

If reductionism concept is used, however, the contrary of the above among other things is possible. In reductionism, the manner of treating even a system of related goods in terms of pricing criteria, production process, branding and other levels of good handling might not be equal. Since reductionist believes every part of the system is a stand-alone facet, every unit of the production process in the manufacturing process of the athletics apparel will be treated independently. As such, every item that will be produced might possess different attributes from the other even though the same department produces the items. In that case, every item deserves its own handling since quality might not be the same. In short, reductionism when applied in any manufacturing industry or production process means that every bit of the process is independent of the preceding or succeeding stages.

Verifying the variance

Variance shows the change from a particular period to another which can be in months, quarters, or years. According to Garrison, Noreen, and Brewer (2003), variance analysis is necessary when evaluating the financial statements and departmental level budgets for the overall financial health of an organization or department. The calculation of variance helps to establish whether an organization is growing or not and at what rate. Variance analysis provides the management team with concrete information on how to make business decisions that would strengthen the financial position of an organization (Garrison, Noreen & Brewer, 2003). The Northeast Health System appears stable in various financial aspects but with normal changes between 2010 and 2011. The health system income statement shows that there was a decrease in the total unrestricted revenue and support in 2011 as compared to 2010 though the total expenses reduced from 2010 to 2011. However, the changes in unrestricted net assets show that year 2011 ended with negative (-) changes as compared to 2010 probably due to huge pension and post-retirement remittances in 2011.

From the variances data obtained, the major positive variances between 2010 and 2011 are observed in cash and cash equivalents (41.3), excess of revenue and gains over expenses (223), net assets from restrictions of purchase of property (68.3), and pension and post-retirement related adjustments (390.3). The significant negative variances are observed in prepaid expenses and other current assets (-87.9), non-operating gains (-197.4), change in net unrealized gains and losses on investments (-170.9), total other changes in unrestricted net assets (-578.1), and a decrease in unrestricted net assets (-283.6). The variances show that there were significant differences in particular aspects of the financials of Northeast Health System both positive and negative.

According to the proportional allocation analysis data, the most significant positive proportions are net patient service revenue for both 2010 and 2011[98.0 (2011); 97.7 (2010], income from operations in 2011 (211.9), change in net unrealized gains and losses on investments in 2011 (167.1), and decrease in unrestricted net assets in 2011 (158.1). The most significant negative proportions from the analysis data are non-operating gains in 2011 (-111.8), and pension and post-retirement related adjustments in 2011 (-76.4).

Most of the financial aspects of Northeast Health System are not heading in the right direction since most of the variances are negative. It shows that the financial health of the firm in 2010 was better than that of 2011. However, the variances in pension and post-retirement related adjustments and excess of revenue and gains over expenses shows that there were more expenses on the two items in 2011 than 2010. Regarding the firm liabilities, the changes were not significant that showed a level of stability. The firm’s assets appear to be on a downfall trend which reveals of some losses or depreciation. For the proportion allocation analysis, it is evident that unrestricted revenues and support decreased in 2011 as compared to 2010, total expenses also reduced in 2011 thereby making the gains over expenses to increase in 2011 as compared to 2010. The major problem experienced in 2011 was the increase in pension and postretirement adjustments as well as fluctuations in unrealized gains and losses on investments.

I would recommend certain actions to the Northeast Health System regarding decreasing or increasing the significant variances and proportional allocations. First is to reduce the accrued wages and vacation payable, the accrued pension liability, and professional liability reserves. The Health facility ought to diversify on the mechanisms of revenue generation to ensure there is an increase in cash flow. The allocations for pension and post-retirement adjustments ought to be controlled to avoid the rapid changes in unrestricted net assets.