Journal Identification

Journal title
Internal Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Springer Netherlands
URL link to “Information for Authors”

Intended audiences
Policy makers in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors, scholars in the clinical pharmacy discipline, general public

Mission of the journal
It intends to offer a platform for the publication of clinical pharmacy articles and related practice-oriented subjects in pharmaceutical sciences. They include clinical pharmacy, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, pharmaceutical care, pharmacy services research, clinical use of medicines, medical devices, and laboratory tests, and other clinical aspects of pharmacy

Publishing frequency
Bimonthly since 2011

Areas of topics
The scope of the Internal Journal of Clinical Pharmacy that entails the clinical pharmacy, its research and application in areas such as pharmaceutical care. Apart from this topics, others include Pharmacotherapy and outcome research

Clinical pharmacy
Pharmaceutical care
Pharmacy services research
Clinical use of medicines, medical equipment, and laboratory tests
Current information regarding medications and medical devices
Medication management
Other clinical aspects of pharmacy
Types of articles in this journal

Reviews: This kind of articles should not exceed 3000 words excluding abstract and references. The structure should be as follows: Introduction, Aim of the review, Method, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. A structured abstract of maximum 350 words with the headings should also be provided: Background, Aim of the Review, Method, Results, and Conclusion.

Research articles: This type of articles should not exceed 3000 words excluding tables, figures, abstract, and references. They structure should be as follows: Introduction, Aim of the study, Ethical approval, Method, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. A structured abstract of maximum 350 words with the headings: Background, Objective, Setting, Method, Main outcome measure, Results, Conclusion. Articles describing qualitative research get exemptions from having 4000 words in length.

Short research reports: This type of articles give the preliminary or limited results of original research and should not exceed 1500 words excluding abstract and have a maximum of 10 references. The structure of a short research report is similar to a research article, and they may only contain two tables or figures. The structure of the abstract of maximum 200 words with the headings: Background, Objective, Method, Results, Conclusion should get provided.

Case reports: This type of articles should not exceed 1500 words excluding abstract, but including a maximum of 10 references and only 1 table or figure. This kind of articles gets structured as follows: Introduction, Ethical approval, Case Description, Discussion, and Conclusion. A structured abstract of maximum 150 words with the headings: Case (description) and Conclusion should get provided.

Commentaries: This type of article allows writers to convey thoughts, considerations, opinions, or discuss issues. These articles should not exceed 2000 words, including a maximum of 20 references and only contain two tables or figures. An unstructured abstract of maximum 150 words gets required.

Letters to the Editor: Letters that comment on a published article will get considered for publication. The letters should not exceed 1000 words, including a maximum of 5 references and only containing a maximum of 1 table or figure. An abstract does not get required.

Brief description of the peer review process
All submissions including commentaries and letters were necessary to get peer reviewed by experts. The paper first gets checked for adherence to the instructions and the editorial policy of the journal. Plagiarism, as well as all references, then gets checked. If approved, the submission will be sent to reviewers. The review procedure takes approximately six weeks; although it may take up to 3 months sometimes. The author then receives information regarding acceptance of their article, needed revisions or rejection of their submission.

Impact factor
Current impact factor:

Impact Factor Rankings

2014 / 2015 Impact Factor


2013 Impact Factor


2012 Impact Factor


(Researchgate, 2016)

One unique/distinct aspect of the journal

The Journal has an entirely web-enabled manuscript submission and review system. The system provides authors the option of tracking the review process of their manuscripts in real time. The log-in and submission procedures provided by the online manuscript and review system are not only comfortable but also straightforward, hence providing little or no problems to authors. A wide range of submission file formats that include Word, WordPerfect, TXT, RTF, and LaTeX for article text and EPS, PS, TIFF, GIF, JPEG and PPT for figures get supported. Only PDF manuscripts have not got accepted.


Brazil is classified as a developing nation due to its Human Development Index score. Brazil is a large nation located in South America. It is well endowed with various natural resources. The Human Development Index score is determined by specific criteria including education, Life expectancy, availability of technology, availability of healthcare and income. Since 2015, Brazil has experienced a high increase in its Human Development Index score. Today, it is classified as a “high” HDI nation. This means that it is in the upper quadrant that contains the upper tier of developing nations.

Question 1
Brazil has previously experienced financial problems. The financial problems emerged due to dictatorial government and corruption. Both the IMF and World Bank interfered with the aim of reducing inflation and improving exchange rates. For a long time, the government of Brazil worked closely with the two institutions in its efforts to settle the foreign debt, but the country’s debt situation only deteriorated (Remmer, 2004). Prior to obtaining any help from the IMF and World Bank, the country had to accent to its state of affairs, which involved executing the Structural Adjustment Programs. The program involved taking measures including minimization the growth in the money supply, liberalizing its foreign exchange, eliminating subsidies, minimizing government spending and removing price controls among other measures (Chossudovsky, 2003).

The IMF and World Bank have offered various economic developments. The efforts have been criticized for neglecting the needs of the poor majority and prioritizing multinational corporations and wealthy lenders in the industrialization. In Brazil, the IMF and World Bank has intervened in domestic politics by supporting one side in the heated social debate. As a result, the institutions have interfered in the most political of decisions involving the allocation of national resources (Santiso, 2001). Hence, they have undermined Brazil’s national democracy.

Brazil has had to adhere to the conditions set by the institutions so as to sustain its economy. When Brazil liberalized its foreign market, the country recorded a considerable growth in imports. This is not healthy for the country’s advancing economy (Danaher, 1994). The significance of IMF conditions could help Brazil through access to outside markets for its agricultural products. However, Brazil still faces market barriers for its products (Mosley et al., 1995). The broad market opening affected Brazil’s trade deficit and devalued its currency. Under the guise of advancing “free trade,” financial stability and market liberalization, the two institutions have forced a reduction in education, health care, and other social services thereby increasing inequality and deepening poverty.

On the other hand, IMF and World Bank have assisted Brazil stabilizing its economy and eradicating its debt crisis. Through Washington Consensus sponsored by the two institutions, Brazil implemented a fiscal policy, aimed at development programs, reducing government salaries and cutting down public sector investment.

Question 2
For Brazil, healthcare is a priority. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the state to ensure that health facilities are available and funded. Healthcare is a constitutional right in Brazil. The Health Ministry carries out national health policy while both the government and private sector are responsible for the provision of healthcare. The effects of a healthy population on the economy are clear. First, a nation with a healthy population finds it attain sustained growth. The provision of primary healthcare enables prevention of diseases for the benefit of the economy (Santiso, 2001).

Secondly, the healthcare performance is linked to economic prosperity. A healthy population can achieve better productivity. Thirdly, a healthy population has a higher life expectancy. This is necessary for economic development. Investment in healthcare is important for economic growth given that healthy workforce is more delivers consistent production. The fourth is that a healthy population reduces the burden of illnesses and costs associated with health issues. This benefits the rapid economic growth. In order to achieve these, the Brazilian government provides a universal healthcare system that allows citizens to afford private healthcare. The system is non-exclusive and accommodates everyone, including visitors (Falleti, 2010). The problem with its health care system is that a substantial amount of spending on healthcare is private.

Question 3
Brazil has faced a number of difficulties in its healthcare financing. This has been linked with low investment from the government. Despite the situation, the country does depend much on foreign aid to support the provision of healthcare to its citizens. Foreign aid is largely used for servicing its debts. The British government is a key supporter of Brazil. The country has made a substantial step towards the reduction of HIV/AIDS and has surpassed the expectations of the World Bank Brazil has emerged as a leader in the exchange of expertise and resources among developing countries. Brazil’s portfolio of domestically developed interventions, including the public production of ARVs and CCTs has positioned the country’s aid’s regime to capitalize on improving the national balance sheet. In 2015, Brazil enacted new legislation requiring international private investors to purchase and operate healthcare facilities in the nation. Investment in healthcare by foreigners has become desirable due to a reduction in value of domestic currency.

Italian language and culture

Andrea Palladio is among the foremost architects of his time. His works helped to change the face of the Renaissance architecture despite working during a time when the Council of tent aimed at reforming the religious architectures as per the Protestant Reform criticism as well as criticism from with the church itself. Thus, Palladio’s architectural designs were limited to a large extent. One of his work was the Basilica di San Pietro di Castello in Venice which was publicly commission buildings. Basilica di San Pietro di Castello is a building that dates from the 16th century. It was the cathedral church of the city. Andrea Palladio was nominated to provide ideas for additions and alterations of the prominent early architects of Venice. His work was to rebuild the interior and faced of St Pietro. The church has a large dome showing the ecclesiastical importance of the church. The drum supports the dome with rectangular windows for letting in light. The interior has a large nave at the central with Latin aisle. There is a transept crossing the church separating the presbytery from the navel.

However, few years later he was commissioned to construct a private chapel for the Barbaro brothers who became his central opportunity of having a perfect plan of the church. Tempietto Barbaro is, therefore, his most crucial work that is a vehicle for discussing his other entire central plan and understanding the theories of architectural planning during the Renaissance. The Barbaro brothers were the Venetian aristocrats prominent for their goal of establishing a humanistic society and educated in humanistic educations. The final architectural work was a product of Palladio’s and Marcantonio Barbaro ideas. The church’s location at the Barbaro estate bounded in the village of the Maser. Its primary purpose was to become a private chapel for the function of the village parish and the Barbaro (Figure 1). The churches plan design is from the Greek cross but in a smaller version of the chapel. It has a semi-circular dome and four arms (Figure 2).

The construction’s facade transports the viewer immediately to the Pantheon in Rome, with its portion and pediment fronting the great dome. There is minimal extravagant ornamentation inside the church. It has no paintings but white walls; the decorations comprise of the statuary. The function of the church to become the village parish was secondary to its purpose of being the Marc’antonio and his family mortuary chapel. Therefore, the church is constructed to bring in muted lighting, and its decorations are not over the top There are repeated sets of Corinthian columns within the triumphal arch motif replicated throughout the room (Weissmuller, 2007).

Il Redentore is another work by Palladio has the Aedicules that feature on the walls encrypted with the Barbaros’ patron saints pictures. The Il Redentore was Palladio’s idyllic church that he has always had in his mind. Palladio’s ideas and thought in designing the Il Redentore had their way in planning for the Tempietto Barbaro. Each feature in Il Redentore is well elevated showing the steps leading to the front entrance. The Il Redentore is a square shape outwardly but the inside there is a faint Greek cross plan that is more pronounced that the Tempietto. The front features of Il Redentore comprise of four engaged columns that are Tempiettos temple front. In general, the initial ideas that Palladio conceived for the Il Redentore were revived and rejuvenated in the construction of Tempietto Barbaro (Weismuller, 2007).

Other architects and their importance
Girolamo Savonarola was a friar Dominican, who preached in Florence in the Renaissance period. His preaching was to seek both political and spiritual reform. Savonarola preached against the materialistic lifestyle of Florence, which was the great center of literature, architecture, and Renaissance art. Sandro Botticelli during his time produced many volumes of paintings and drawings such as the ‘Divine Comedy’ manuscript by Dante. With Botticelli’s work were mainly church related.

For instance, the Adoration of the Magi’ (c.1481) provides heavy details with well elaborated architectural representations and expressive set of figures within religious contexts. He had a good reputation in religious art and was invited to work in decorating the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. By the turn of the century, he had readopted the Gothic principle and abandoned modern architecture in place of rural elements for framing subjects.

The Scrovegni Chapel Giotto di Bandon’s masterwork that he completed in 1305 in Padua, Italy for the Enrich Scrovegni family. The forgoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of the chapel relate to an emotional and complex narrative of the lives of Jesus and Mary. The narrative outlook forms the genius aspect of this chapel. Bandon’s settings and themes are exclusively religious as seen in the ionic scenes that depict Jesus, Mary, and Joachim.

Scrovegni Chapel

Leon Battista Alberti in 1435 gave the first theory about the modern day linear perspective ion his book the painting. This new system has a major impact on measurements in paintings to many artists after 1435. The artist created a floor on the ground of the painting and drew another receding grid to guide the reflective scale on other elements in the picture. It was the first step that painting was not just for the purpose of God’s glorifications as it was the case of the Medieval Europe. Instead, painting during the Renaissance was for the people looking at the painting.