The Big Stage

As a prosecutor, explain the final report to the prosecution of a case is always important. The first importance of this report is that it helps the prosecution to identify the critical elements of the case as well as the most reliable admissible evidence by which every element will get approval. This means that the report will help to identify any facts favorable to the defendant and any representations from the defense over the likely prosecution. The final report is also important to the prosecution because it helps in identifying the evidence which may be needed to rebut the likely lines of argument from the defendant (Gibson, 2002). In this case, the report provides expert evidence, to rebut any potential defense arguments by foreseeability. The final report to the prosecution of a case is also important because it encompasses the views of the victim on the suggested prosecution. If the victim’s statement has been taken, this becomes availed by the Approval Officer, and if the victim hasn’t made a statement, his views become nevertheless considered in the prosecution report. The final report to the prosecution of a case also sets out the aggravating, mitigating as well as other factors that are critical to sentencing. This serves the purpose of providing a vivid summary for the approval officer. As a result, it helps in a Friskies schedule production if the case is approved.

In the prosecution process, there is possible impact of poorly completed final reports on a case. Poorly completed final reports hinder the prosecution to prove guilt beyond reasonable doubt. Such reports fail to provide rebuttal from the defense, and as a result, the case can be lost. Poorly prepared final prosecution report can also lead to injustice to the defendant (Tong, Bryant & Horvath, 2009). This shows that the accused can get a harsher punishment than what is just. At the same time, poorly prepared prosecution report can lead to the miscarriage of justice whereby the defendant can be left off the hook because of prosecution negligence. Poorly prepared final prosecution reports can leave loopholes where the defense attorneys, as well as the judge, can dismiss the case. Finally, poorly prepared prosecution report for a case can make the court to demand fresh investigation and prosecution of the case. This is not only waste of time, but also criminal justice system resources.

There are different stages in the Criminal Justice Process where evidence is provided to merit the case. Each of these stages is important in building a successfully litigated action. The first evidentiary stage is the preliminary hearing. This stage is important because it determines whether or not there is enough evidence exists against the defendant to continue the litigated action. This process allows the prosecutor to test the evidential strength at his disposal. This is important in making the judge decide if a crime was indeed committed and if there is the likelihood that the person in the court committed it. Therefore, this process is important for successful litigation. The second stage where evidence is provided in the justice process is the information or indictment stage. In this case, the grand jury listens to the evidence from the prosecutor and determines whether a case needs to face the trial (National Institute of Justice & National Research Council, 2001). Hence, the prosecutor has to provide evidence to determine the probable cause to charge the defendant formally. The last stage in which evidence is provided in the court process takes place during the trial. This happens when there have not been pleas, or the case has been dismissed because of different reasons. During the trial process, there are laws which govern the evidence submission. These regulations are tightly procedural law as well as precedent controlled. During this process, the procedural law specifies the type of evidence to be submitted, the credentials allowed representing the parties and what the jury can hear. This is a stage whereby the prosecution is always tasked with proving the guilty beyond a reasonable doubt or the defendant is left off the hook by the judge during judgment. Therefore, the preliminary hearing, indictment, as well as the trial, is three states in the court process where evidence is provided. In sum, preliminary hearing evidence helps to convince the judge that the defendant has a case to answer while the indictment proves to the jury that the defendant is liable for prosecution. On the other hand, the trial evidence is important to ensure justice is served. Thus, the three stages are important for successful litigation action.

A criminal investigator plays important roles in preparing a case for the court. This involves collecting and using forensic evidence as a way of solves crimes. He or she also interview suspects, informants, as well as witnesses to determine alibis, time frames, clues as well as possible suspects. He also bags the evidence carefully to ensure that it meets prosecution. He also runs personal identification database as a way of obtaining matches. Criminal investigators also play a role of collect sufficient evidence to support criminal case in the court criminal. They also process crime scenes, file evidence, follow up on leads and prepare investigative reports to be used by the prosecution. They also attend and make autopsies notes and prepare evidence sketches as well as diagrams. Criminal investigators are also important in obtaining search warrants, carrying out surveillance to monitor suspects, analyze criminal tests among others.

The work of criminal investigators always involves cooperation with the prosecution as a way of enhancing courtroom presentation. Criminal investigators always work jointly with the prosecutor in explaining to the jury regarding the significance of evidence about the proof. They also collect sufficient evidence which is shared by the prosecution to support courtroom presentation. Criminal investigators also collaborate with prosecutors by sharing suspect interview responses. This is important in careful evidence presentation in the courtroom to ensure a successful prosecution.

Not guilty and acquitted are two terms that are always found in the criminal justice system. Acquittal is where the accused becomes free of the criminal charge based on the criminal law (Riddell, 1916). In this case, the prosecution has failed to proof its burden of proof. On the other hand, not guilty means legally blameless. This is where the court finds the offender blameless after the prosecution has provided its full evidence. Thus, Not guilty’ is a decision made by the court concerning an individual charged with committing a particular offense to being freed after being blameless while acquittal means the prosecution have failed in its duty. Therefore, in my opinion, an acquittal means that the investigator failed. The reason is that the investigators must always use his evidence and knit it to the case to convince the court that the defendant is guilty or has a case to answer. Therefore, the investigator must always follow the procedural law to guide the prosecution in defending the case.

In 20 years time, there are some changes that may permeate the criminal investigation. One of the will be the use of radio frequency in investigations. This will help to track evidence source as well as forensic details to facilitate successful prosecution.

Holism versus reductionism in healthcare and Athletics Gear Manufacturing Industry

This paper discusses holism and reductionism in health care and athletics gear industries.

Healthcare industry
The primary concept of holism is that its proponents have a common belief that things are better understood in their wholeness rather than when broken into component parts (Freeman, 2005). The body functions as a complete unit. It’s thus not possible to trigger a cell without triggering the whole body. This same concept, when applied to the healthcare industry, could mean that all aspects of healthcare provision are considered more realistic and more gratifying when what is under consideration is treated in its original state rather than in parts. For instance, if a person diagnosed with a certain illness is admitted to a healthcare facility, he is considered wholly in need of medication. In any case, the pain or agony in a particular part of the body affects the whole body (Freeman, 2005). When medication is applied, its carried in the blood to heal the place in pain though this affects the whole body. It’s thus not possible to isolate any part of the human body no matter whether it’s the part/organ most affected by the ailment. When a person suffers mental delusion, the whole body is affected. If he suffers stomach upsets, the whole body is considered sick or unhealthy.

There is one thing that comes out from the above consideration; that healthcare service provision is a large enterprise requiring many and different health care providers including pharmacists, psychologists, dentists, opticians, etc. who are closely interdependent. Their system of work is so much intertwined that if one breaks out of the system, it may crash. If sufficient healthcare is to be accorded to patients, then these departments have to work as a whole and interdependently rather than separately (Ahn et al., 2006)

Reductionism is, however, the complete diversion from holism. For reductionists, the parts are crucial if the whole is to be understood. In the healthcare context, reductionists believe that the patient has to be studied more aggressively though analyzing the organs affected rather than the whole body (Ahn et al., 2006) For them, the symptoms alone cannot be used by a physician to know what really the patient suffers. When a patient is admitted, each organ reported to bring about his/her suffering is looked into independently. Smaller concepts of studying or researching what may be the cause of the problems in the various parts of the body are applied. More so, the medication for the differently affected parts of the body are given and prescribed separately (Ahn et al., 2006).

Athletics gear manufacturing industry
This industry deals with the manufacturing of athletics protective aids for athletes and related apparel. Such industries produce athletics goods such as sailboards, skates, exercise machines and other playground equipment. They also manufacture protective goods for athletes such h as helmets, athletics pads, snowshoes, shin guards among other protective gear.

Holism and reductionism apply in this industry in various dimensions. In the dimension of production, holism occurs in the notion that athletics gear industry is incomplete if it produces or manufactures a particular set of apparel. For instance, this industry must produce all focal goods required by athletes for it to be termed so. Reductionism would not coincide with that. For it, the industry may warrant the term ‘athletics gear manufacturing industry’ even if it produces one nature or line of the above goods (Freeman, 2005). The second area of consideration that may bring in the concept of holism and reductionism with respect to the industry is production process of the apparel. If the principles holism is considered, an all-inclusive design perspective is used. As such, the criteria for producing athletics apparel might be the same. The price determination criteria (Wu, 2012) for the same system of items (protective athletics items for instance) might be the same. More so, the raw materials might also be the same for a system of items so that similar items can match in many, if not all aspects. Holism as far as this industry is considered is a considerable notion that all things, methodology of their production and price processing are connected in such a mutual manner that none is stand-alone (Benci et al., 2003).

If reductionism concept is used, however, the contrary of the above among other things is possible. In reductionism, the manner of treating even a system of related goods in terms of pricing criteria, production process, branding and other levels of good handling might not be equal. Since reductionist believes every part of the system is a stand-alone facet, every unit of the production process in the manufacturing process of the athletics apparel will be treated independently. As such, every item that will be produced might possess different attributes from the other even though the same department produces the items. In that case, every item deserves its own handling since quality might not be the same. In short, reductionism when applied in any manufacturing industry or production process means that every bit of the process is independent of the preceding or succeeding stages.

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